Footnotes compiled by Washington Bureau Chief Jan Cienski from a 21-page report, "A Decade of Deception and Defiance," issued by the White House September 14, 2002 detailing the case against Saddam Hussein.
The United States withdrew from UNESCO in 1984, complaining of a wasteful bureaucracy and an anti-American bias.
UNESCO -- which stands for the UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization -- has 188 member nations. It was created in 1946 with the goal of promoting world peace and security through international collaboration on education, science and culture, but it has long been accused of being corrupt, politicized and mismanaged.
When Koichiro Matsura took over as UNESCO's director general in 1999, he promised to refocus on core concerns and implement more practical programs, hoping to woo back the United States. He provoked staff protests and hunger strikes when he dismissed 20 senior advisors and suspended 120 promotions and appointments that his predecessor put in place just before leaving.
UNESCO's two-year budget, long frozen at US$544-million, goes largely to salaries and administrative costs.
2: UNITED NATIONS RESOLUTIONS
The UN Security Council has issued at least 16 resolutions on Iraq; the president of the Security Council has subsequently issued at least 30 statements regarding Saddam Hussein's violations of those resolutions.
The resolutions include:
UNSCR 678, which ordered Iraq to withdraw from Kuwait and authorized UN member states "to use all necessary means" to force it to do so.
UNSCR 688 demands that Iraq "unconditionally accept" the destruction and removal "under international supervision" of all "chemical and biological weapons" and that Iraq "unconditionally agree not to acquire or develop nuclear weapons" and must "unconditionally accept" the destruction of its ballistic missiles with a range greater than 150 kilometres. The resolution also says Iraq cannot support terrorism or allow terrorist organizations to operate on its territory.
UNSCR 686 demands Iraq release prisoners detained during the Gulf War, return Kuwaiti property seized during the war and accept liability for war damages.
UNSCR 688 condemns Iraq's repression of its civilian population, warning that Iraq threatens "international peace and security" and that the regime must allow humanitarian organizations to enter its territory.
3: HUMAN RIGHTS:
Saddam has made no move to comply with UNSCR 688 of April 5, 1991, which "condemns" his repression of the Iraqi people.
"Saddam Hussein has repeatedly violated these provisions and has: expanded his violence against women and children; continued his horrific torture and execution of innocent Iraqis; continued to violate the basic human rights of the Iraqi people and has continued to control all sources of information (including killing more than 500 journalists and other opinion leaders in the past decade)," the White House paper says, relying mainly on reports from the U.S. State Department.
Saddam has repeatedly refused visits by human rights monitors and the establishment of independent human rights organizations.
Human rights organizations and opposition groups continue to receive reports of women who were raped while in custody.
Iraqi security services routinely torture detainees. According to former prisoners, torture techniques included branding, electric shocks administered to the genitals and other areas, beating, pulling out of fingernails, burning with hot irons and blowtorches, suspension from rotating ceiling fans, dripping acid on the skin, rape, breaking of limbs, denial of food and water, extended solitary confinement in dark and extremely small compartments, and threats to rape or otherwise harm family members and relatives.
In 2000, the authorities reportedly introduced tongue amputation as a punishment for persons who criticize Saddam or his family.
Former UN Human Rights Special Rapporteur Max Van der Stoel reported in April 1998 that Iraq had executed at least 1,500 people during the previous year for political reasons, and the executions continue.
Amnesty International reported that Iraq has the world's worst record for numbers of persons who have disappeared or remain unaccounted for, possibly as many as 16,000 people.
Saddam does not permit freedom of speech or of the press, and does not tolerate political dissent.
The White House paper also charges that Saddam's secular regime commits crimes against Muslims.
The government consistently politicizes and interferes with religious pilgrimages, both of Iraqi Muslims who wish to make the Hajj to Mecca and Medina and of Iraqi and non-Iraqi Muslim pilgrims who travel to holy sites within the country.
The Iraqi government has for decades conducted a brutal campaign of murder, summary execution, and protracted arbitrary arrest against the religious leaders and followers of the majority Shi'a Muslim population.
Iraq has also violated the UN Oil for Food program, exporting oil illegally, failing to distribute food to civilians and trying to import military technologies.
4: INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM:
Iraq is one of seven countries that have been designated by the U.S. Secretary of State as state sponsors of international terrorism, a distinction earned by the Iraqi Intelligence Service's 1993 attempt to assassinate George H. Bush, the former U.S. president and father of the current president, with a car bomb.
Iraq is also home to terrorist groups in violation of UNSCR 687.
The groups include the Mujahedeen-e-Khalq Organization, which has used terrorist violence against Iran and in the 1970s was responsible for killing several U.S. military personnel and U.S. civilians.
Iraq shelters several prominent Palestinian terrorist organizations, and offers payments of US$25,000 to the families of Palestinian suicide bombers in Israel.
Iraq also protects the Abu Nidal Organization, an international terrorist organization that has carried out terrorist attacks in 20 countries, killing or injuring almost 900 people, although last month Abu Nidal was found dead in Baghdad.
Former Iraqi military officers have described a highly secret terrorist training facility in Iraq known as Salman Pak, where both Iraqis and non-Iraqi Arabs receive training in hijacking planes and trains, planting explosives in cities, sabotage and assassinations.
5: BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS
In violation of UNSCR 687, Saddam has continued to produce and conceal biological weapons, first revealed by the 1995 defection of a senior Iraqi official after UN inspectors failed to find most of Saddam's bioweapons.
Although Iraq later admitted to producing biological agents and to the weaponization of thousands of litres of anthrax, botulinim toxin, and aflatoxin, United Nations Special Commission (UNSCOM) experts concluded that Iraq's declarations vastly understated the extent of its program.
The 1995 account was buttressed in 2001 by another defector, Adnan Ihsan Saeed al-Haideri, who said he had visited 20 secret facilities for chemical, biological and nuclear weapons. Mr. Saeed, a civil engineer, supported his claims with stacks of Iraqi government contracts, complete with technical specifications.
The U.S. Defence Department has found evidence that Iraq is continuing to work on its weapons programs, reporting in January 2001 that Iraq was converting L-29 jet trainer aircraft for potential vehicles for the delivery of chemical or biological weapons.
Last year, Iraq announced that it would begin renovating its al-Dawrah Foot and Mouth Disease Vaccine Facility without UN approval, ostensibly to produce vaccines. But the U.S. report notes that it is one of two known biocontainment level-three facilities in Iraq that have an extensive air handling and filtering system.
6: CHEMICAL WEAPONS
Saddam's military used poison gas against Kurdish civilians and against Iran during its fierce war with its neighbour in the 1980s. The White House says that Iraq continues to stockpile and develop new chemical weapons, in violation of UNSCR 687.
Gaps identified by UNSCOM in Iraqi accounting and current production capabilities strongly suggest that Iraq maintains stockpiles of chemical agents, probably VX, sarin, cyclosarin and mustard.
Iraq has not accounted for hundreds of tonnes of chemical precursors and tens of thousands of unfilled munitions, including warheads for its Scud missiles.
It has likewise not accounted for at least 15,000 artillery rockets that in the past were its preferred vehicle for delivering nerve agents, nor has it accounted for about 550 artillery shells filled with mustard agent.
7: NUCLEAR WEAPONS
The White House cites a new report by London's International Institute for Strategic Studies that concluded Saddam's scientists could build a nuclear bomb within months if they were able to obtain fissile material, although the report noted that it was unlikely Iraq would be able to get its hands on such material.
Iraq has stepped up its quest for nuclear weapons and has embarked on a worldwide hunt for materials to make an atomic bomb. Baghdad has sought to buy thousands of specially designed aluminum tubes which officials believe were intended as components of centrifuges to enrich uranium.
8: BALLISTIC MISSILES
Iraq is believed to be developing ballistic missiles with a range greater than 150 kilometres -- which UNSCR 687 explicitly prohibits.
Most of those missiles are thought to be Scuds, which have a range of more than 600 kilometres and a few of which are thought to have been hidden from arms inspectors. Saddam fired numerous Scuds at Israel during the Gulf War.
Iraq is also continuing to test liquid and solid propellant rocket engines, apparently to upgrade its missile force.
© Copyright 2002 National Post